Secondary Documentation Guide

Staff Recognition




Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

Primary and Secondary Sources

Parenthetical Citations

Typical Cases

Special Cases

Formats for Works-Cited Entries

Print Resources



Reference Books



Non-print Resources

Television or Radio Broadcasts

Sound Recordings

Film or Video Recordings


Internet Resources

Online Databases

E-Mail Messages, Listserves, and Newslists

World Wide Web (WWW), Telnet, File Transfer Protocol, and Gopher Sites

Online Images, Sounds, and Video Clips


Personal Interviews

Lectures, Speeches, or Addresses

Musical Compositions

Religious Sources

Preparing the Paper

MLA Standard Page Layout

APA and MLA Website Addresses


We acknowledge the following staff members for their contributions involved in producing this document:

Patricia Conquest, Barbee Cox, Marilyn Eanes, Karen Hodges, Becky Holditch, Deborah Lightfoot, Katherine Minter, Kay Murphy, Margaret Oberender, Karen Saunders


Purposes of Documentation

The purpose of documentation is to give the reader full, quick, accurate, efficient, and consistent information about the sources. In other words, give credit for words or ideas that are not your own.

Documentation means that two elements have been added to a paper:

  • parenthetical (internal) citation
  • works-cited list (sources used in paper)

To ensure continuity within a course study, writers use the standard style book preferred by their instructor. One example is the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (MLA). This packet is based on MLA. Another style frequently used is the APA, American Psychological Association. Its website is provided on page 33.

Whenever you use someone else’s words or ideas, you must give that person or source credit in the parenthetical citations. You must acknowledge the following:

  • a direct quotation
  • a statistic
  • an idea
  • someone else’s opinion
  • concrete facts, which are not generally known
  • information not commonly known
  • summarized or paraphrased information
  • a picture, graph, map, table, or chart


Plagiarism is the act of using another person’s ideas or words in your writing without acknowledging the source. Failure to cite (give credit to) the source constitutes plagiarism. You may use someone’s words or thoughts; however, you must give that person credit in the parenthetical (internal) documentation, as well as in your works-cited list.

Whether intentional or not, plagiarism is very serious and can result in failure on a paper or in a course. In some cases, plagiarism in college or the literary world can result in more serious consequences.

What do you do if you wish to include information from the following passage found on p. 427 of A.L. McLeod’s Masterpieces of African-American Literature?

Throughout Songs of Jamaica, there are intimations that McKay foresaw his intent to return to his native land and to the green hills of the Clarendon district, which held such an attraction for him.

Plagiarized: McKay’s poems in Songs of Jamaica foreshadow his travels back to his native land.

Correctly documented: McKay’s poems in Songs of Jamaica foreshadow his travels back to his native land (McLeod 427).

Correctly documented: A.L. McLeod saw McKay’s desire to return to his native land in the poetry of Songs of Jamaica (427). [Note: Author’s name is not included in parentheses because his name is mentioned within the text.]

Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing


An author’s exact words should be enclosed in quotation marks. Use ellipsis points (…) when you want to omit a portion of the quotation; use brackets [ ] to add letters or words of your own to clarify or explain a point or to make grammatical sense. A direct quotation is not the same thing as a line of dialogue.

Exact words from a source must be interwoven into your own text by placing the phrase at the beginning, middle, or end of your sentence.Original Text: “Jay Gatsby is portrayed as a dreamer and optimist whose dream is beyond his reach.”

Woven quotation: Gatsby’s attempt to marry Daisy supports critic Jane Smith’s belief that he is “a dreamer…whose dream is beyond his reach” (25).


Paraphrasing is putting the author’s ideas and details into your own words.Original Text: Source: Fleming, page 196

Meanwhile, in the English newspapers, Franklin began a task that was to occupy him for the next ten years–defending America’s reputation against volleys of abuse fired at the Colonies by outraged Britons, who could see no reason why Americans should not pay the same taxes they paid at home.

Paraphrase: For ten years in London, Franklin acted as an agent for several of the American colonies. During this time, he wrote letters and articles that were printed in British newspapers, explaining the position of the American people as they sought to avoid the taxes being imposed on them (Fleming 196).


Summarizing is putting the author’s main ideas into your own words.

Original Text Source: Fleming, page 287

Meanwhile, Franklin kept the pressure on the French, writing letters that were aimed at forcing France to abandon its policy of watchful waiting.

Summary: In France, he began a letter-writing campaign to gain French support for the American colonies’ cause (Fleming 287).

Primary and Secondary Sources

In literary analysis, the major work on which your paper focuses is referred to as the primary source (e.g., The Great Gatsby).

When writing about your primary source, you will include personal opinion, or commentary, from one or more critics who are experts in the field and who have written articles dealing with the novel and your topic. The commentary from critics is referred to as a secondary source. Secondary sources are not the same as factual information, or concrete details, from the book. An example of a secondary source would be the following:

The idea of power in The Great Gatsby is embodied in Tom Buchanan. He is a man of powerful build and commanding presence, and he exudes a kind of authority as he ushers people about (Lehan 227).

Parenthetical Citations

Typical Cases

A reader can look at your list of works cited at the end of your paper to find the complete source citation. Within your paper’s text, put only the author’s last name and the page number in parentheses immediately after the information:

Armstrong became “an international star famed for his gravel-voiced singing and broad comedy effects as well as his playing” (Harrison 288).Noticethat there is no p. or comma between author’s name and page number.

To avoid interrupting the flow of your writing, place the parenthetical reference where a pause would naturally occur (preferably at the end of a sentence, as near as possible to the material documented). The parenthetical reference precedes the punctuation mark that concludes the sentence, clause, or phrase containing the borrowed material. If the author is mentioned in the text, (s)he does not need to be identified in the parenthetical documentation:

In the late Renaissance, Machiavelli contended that human beings were by nature “ungrateful” and “mutable” (1240), and Montaigne thought them “miserable” and “puny” (1343).

If your citation is at the end of a sentence, the period goes after the last parenthesis. See page 22 for block quotation format.

Special Cases

No author:

Give the first main word of the title.

Example: (Jazz 330).

Author’s name in text:

Give only the page number.

Example: Ronald Banks called him the greatest trumpet player ever (331).

Two or more books by the same author:

Put the author’s last name, a comma, and then the first main word of the title.

Example: During the 1930s Armstrong “led a large orchestra and toured the world” (Becker, Satchmo 25).

Two or three authors:

Use all last names. Do not alphabetize.

Examples: “His eminence continued to grow throughout his life,” making him one of America’s best-known musicians (Anderson and Thompson 16).

He was a leading influence in the growth of jazz (Eastwood, Van Cleef, and Wallach 324-25).

Four or more authors:

Use the last name of the first author listed and et al. (Latin for and others).

Example: (Hearst et al. 96).

More than one author with the same last name:

Add the first initial.

Example: (C. Eastwood 24).

Editor but no single author:

Treat as an author.

Line from a play:

Use Roman numerals for documenting acts and scenes in plays.

Example: During a conversation with her nurse, Juliet admits that Romeo is “[her] only love sprung from [her] only hate!” (Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet i.v. 140).

Example: In Shakespeare’s play, Romeo and Juliet become “a pair of star-crossed lovers” (Romeo and Juliet Prologue 6).

Line from a poem:

Give line numbers, not page numbers: (lines 12-14). Additional line references can omit the word lines.

Example: The hero suddenly realizes that he has “miles to go before [he sleeps]” (Frost line 15).


Remember these two points about a Works-Cited page:

It is an alphabetical listing of the sources used — by the author’s last name or (if no author is listed) by the first main word of the title, excluding a, an, or the.

List only those sources that were actually cited in parentheses in the paper, and list the whole article or book, not just the pages used.

Note that the author is listed last name first. Pay special attention to spacing and punctuation:

Double-space everything.

Indent the second and any subsequent lines five spaces so that the author’s name stands out to the left. End each entry with a period.

Print Resources


A works-cited entry for any book must include the following:

Last Name, First. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

Author: See the following examples for format for various author/editor entries.

Title: ALWAYS UNDERLINE THE TITLE! To avoid ambiguity, use underlining when you intend italics.

Place of Publication: Include city and state; use 2-letter abbreviation for state. Omit state when city is common knowledge, i.e. New York, Chicago, etc.

Publisher: Give only the main name; omit descriptions, i.e. Company, Inc., Press, Ltd.

Date: If the year of publication is not recorded on the title page, use the latest copyright date.

Whole Books

One author

Alphabetize the titles of works by the same author. When more than one title by the same author is included in the Works Cited, the author’s name must be indicated by three hyphens, followed by a period.

Dash, Joan. The Triumph of Discovery: Women Scientists Who Won the Nobel Prize. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Messner, 1991.

– – -. Women Scientists. New York: Harcourt, 1990.

Two or more authors

List authors as shown on title page; do not alphabetize. Reverse only the name of the first author, add a comma, and give the other name or names in normal form. Place a period after the last name. If there are more than three authors, name only the first and add et al.

Cantor, Dorothy W., Toni Bernay, and Jean Stoess. Women in Power: The Secrets of Leadership. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.

Dolan, Edward F., and Margaret M. Scariano. Nuclear Waste: The 10,000-year Challenge. New York: Watts, 1990.

Graham, James, et al. Experiments with Color. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Grossett, 1993.

No author given

The Real World: Understanding the Modern World Through the New Geography. Boston: Houghton, 1991.

Corporate author

National Geographic Society. Women of Arabia. Washington D.C.: National Geographic, 1992.

Editor, but no single author

Flaste, Richard, ed. The New York Times Book of Science Literacy. New York: Random House, 1991.

A republished book

To cite a republished book–for example, a paperback version of a book originally published in clothbound version–give the original publication date, followed by a period, before the publication information for the book.

Hersey, John. Hiroshima. 1946. New York: Random House, 1985.

A work in an anthology

An editor, translator, or compiler is usually responsible for a source that includes a collection of works written by several authors. These may be books of poems, short stories, or plays. Write Ed., Trans., or Comp. (“Edited by,” “Translated by,” or “Compiled by”) after the book title and give that person’s name. Give the page numbers of the entire piece, not just the pages used.

Allende, Isabel. “Toad’s Mouth.” Trans. Margaret Sayers Eden. A Hammock Beneath the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie. New York: Plume, 1992. 83-88.

“A Witchcraft Story.” The Hopi Way: Tales from a Vanishing Culture. Comp. Mango Civilian. Flagstaff: Northland, 1986. 33-42.

A particular edition of a book or a classic work

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Ed. F. W. Robinson. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton, 1957.

A multi-volume work

Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 20 vols. London: Macmillan, 1980.

Government publication

State name of government, department, and agency. Next, give title and author, if known, followed by publication information. The publisher of U.S. government is usually the Government Printing Office, or GPO.

United States. U.S. Dept. of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Effects of Class Size on Achievement. By David James. Washington: GPO, 1991.

Parts of Books

Poem, short story, essay, or chapter in a collection by one author

London, Jack. “Love of Life.” Short Stories of Jack London. Eds. Earle Labor, Robert C. Leitz III, I. Milo Shepard. New York: Macmillan, 1990. 169-85.

Poem, short story, essay, or chapter in a collection by several authors

Carrol, Lewis. “Father William.” The Norton Book of Light Verse. Ed. Russell Baker. New York: W.W. Norton, 1986. 331-32.

Article in a collection, with editor but not author given

Moritz, Charles, ed. “Armstrong, Louis.” Current Biography Yearbook 1951. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1952, 177-85.

Novel or play in collection

Steinbeck, John. The Red Pony. The Short Novels of Steinbeck. New York: Viking, 1981. 135-200.

Introduction, preface, jacket notes, foreword, or after-word by the author of a work (Note that “Preface” appears after the title.)

Kay, Dennis. Shakespeare: His Life, Work, and Era. Preface. New York: Morrow, 1992. 7-9.

Introduction, preface, jacket notes, foreword, or after-word written by someone other than the author of a work (Note that author of foreword appears before title and author of the work.)

Coles, Robert. Foreword. No Place to Be: Voices of Homeless Children. By Judith Berck. Boston: Houghton, 1992. 1-4.

Scott, Steven M. Jacket notes. Missing Angel Juan. By Francesca Lia Block. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.

Reprinted article or essay, previously published elsewhere

Follow this format for all of the collections of literary criticism.

Lewis, C.S. “A Panegyric for Dorothy L. Sayers.” On Stories and Other Essays on Literature. Ed. Walter Hooper. New York: Harcourt, 1982. 91-95. Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Vol. 15. Ed. Dennis Poupard and James E. Person, Jr. Detroit, I: Gale Research, 1985. 376-77.


Include the following information:

Author (if given)

Title of article (in quotation marks)

Title of periodical (underlined)

Date of publication (day month year)

Pages (Include beginning and ending pages or use + if pages are not consecutive)

Article in a monthly or quarterly magazine

Boerner, Christopher, and Kenneth Chilton. “False Economy: The Folly of Demand-Side Recycling.” Environment Jan./Feb. 1994: 6-15+.

Article in a weekly magazine

Brimelow, Peter. “Gender Politics.” Forbes 14 Mar. 1994: 46-47.

No author given

“The Art of the Drop Shot.” Tennis Jan. 1993: 22-27.

Reference Books

Include the following information:

Author (if given)

Title of article (in quotation marks)

Title of book (underlined)

Edition (if stated)

Year of publication

“Ginsburg, Ruth Bader.” Who’s Who in America. 48th ed. 1994.

Mohanty, Jitendra M. “Indian Philosophy.” The New Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropedia. 15th ed. 1987.


Include the following information:

Author (if given)

Title of article (in quotation marks)

Title of newspaper (underlined)

Date of publication (day month year)

Edition (if given)

Section and page numbers

Note: Capitalize all important words in the title of article.


Le Batard, Dan. “McGwire’s Triumph.” Austin American-Statesman. 9 Sep. 1998: A1.


Include the word Editorial after the author’s name.

Garcia, Arnold. Editorial. “The Joy of Mudville.” Austin American-Statesman. 9 Sep. 1998: A14.

Letter to the editor

Include the word Letter after the author’s name.

Buford, Maurey. Letter. “Hypocrisy Anyone?” Austin American-Statesman. 9 Sep. 1998: A14.


Review of a book, play, or movie

Crutchfield, Will. “Pure Italian.” Rev. of Verdi: A Biography, by Mary Jane Phillips-Matz. New Yorker 31 June 1994: 76-82.

Dunning, Jennifer. Rev. of The River, chor. Alvin Ailey. Dance Theater of Harlem. New York State Theater, New York. New York Times 17 Mar. 1994: C18.

Kauffmann, Stanley. “New Spielberg.” Rev. of Schindler’s List, dir. Steven Spielberg. New Republic 13 Dec. 1993: 30.


Treat a pamphlet as a book.

Best Museums: New York City. New York: Trip Builder, 1993.

SIRS, paper

Stuller, Jay. “By the Numbers.” American Legion Magazine Jan. 1990: 34+. Rpt. in Population. Vol.5 Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, Inc., 1991. Art. 2.

Published dissertation

Dietze, Rudolf F. Ralph Ellison: The Genesis of an Artist. Diss. U Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1982. Erlanger Beiträge zur Sprach- und Kunstwissenschaft 70. Nürnberg: Carl, 1982.


Any type of illustrative visual material (table, photograph, map, chart, graph, drawing, cartoon, online image, etc.) must be reprinted in its original size and format. It should be labeled Fig., assigned an arabic numeral, and given a title or caption. Include in the source under the illustration.


Fig. 1. Round Rock Independent School District Logo.

Source: “Round Rock Independent School District Logo.” Round Rock ISD. Home page. 30 June 1999.


Memo or letter

Include the following information:

Author (the person who wrote the letter or memo)

Subject (in quotations, if there is one)

Description (letter or memo)

Recipient’s name (who received it)


Amescua, Gloria. “Round Rock Writes Follow Ups.” Memo to Round Rock Writes Trainers. Round Rock Independent School District. 6 Sep. 1998.

Starr, Kenneth. Letter to the author. 11 Sep. 1998.


Follow the format for magazine or journal, adding the name of the organization that produces the newsletter after the name of the newsletter.

Borger, James. “Ecology Gains in China.” EcoWatch. Ecology Action, Fall 1993: 3+.

Non-print resources

Television or Radio Broadcasts

Include the following information when available:

Title of the episode or segment (in quotation marks)

Title of the program (underlined)

Title of the series, if any (neither underlined nor in quotation marks)

Name of the network

Call letters and city of the local station (if any).

Date of the broadcast.

“L.A. Is Burning: Five Reports from a Divided City.” Frontline. Documentary Consortium. KLRU, Austin. 4 Apr.1993.

Sound Recordings

Since many rules for sound recordings exist, include as much information as necessary and available. Consider the following information:

Person (composer, conductor, performer–choice depends on how important that person is)

Title of a specific song (in quotation marks)

Artist or artists (if not mentioned above)

Title of the recording (underlined)

Electronic medium if not a compact disc (Audio cassette, Audiotape, LP)

Manufacturer Year of issue (if the year is unknown, write n.d.)

Simon, Paul. The Rhythm of the Saints. Warner Bros., 1990.

Simon, Paul and Milton Nascimento. “Spirit Voices.” The Rhythm of the Saints. Audio Cassette. Warner Bros., 1990.

Film or Video Recordings

Include the following information when available:

Title (underlined)


Other information, such as names of writers, performers, and the producer.

Original release date (if applicable)


Electronic medium (Film, Videocassette, Videodisc, Slide Program, Filmstrip)


It’s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore. 1946. Videocassette. Republic, 1998.


Include the following information when available:

Name of the author (if given)

Title of the article (in quotation marks)

Title of database (underlined)

Electronic medium (CD-ROM)

Place of publication

Name of publisher or distributor (if important)

Date of electronic publication

Discovering Authors:

“Bronte, Emily.” Discovering Authors. Vers. 2.0. CD-ROM. Gale, 1996.


“Afghanistan: Facts & Figures (Geography).” Exegy. CD-ROM. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, July/August 1998.

Granger’s World of Poetry:

Sandburg, Carl. “Being Born is Important.” The Naked Astronaut. Ed. Rene Graziani. Faber and Faber, 1983. Columbia Granger’s World of Poetry. CD-ROM. Columbia University Press, 1992.

Information Finder:

Garrison, David L. “Marine Biology.” World Book. 1999 ed. CD-ROM. World Book, Inc., 1999.

Monarch Notes:

Cooperman, Stanley. “Works of F. Scott Fitzgerald.” Monarch Notes. CD-ROM. Bureau Development, Inc., 1991.


Kreiger, Kathy. “Solar Mike: Scientist Keeping Energy Flame Alive.” Santa Cruz County Sentinel (California). 3 Nov. 1996. Newsbank News File. CD-ROM. Newsbank, inc. Dec. 1, 1995-Dec. 30, 1996.


Greene, Bob. “When Athletes Endorse, Why Does Anyone Listen?” USA Today 8 Apr. 1997. Proquest Direct. (Online)

“Solar Power Incognito.” Discover July 1997: 18. Proquest Resource/One Full Text. CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest. Fall 1996.

Sirs Researcher:

Dietz, Roger. “On the Road Again.” Acoustic Guitar Sept/Oct 1994: 42+. Researcher. CD-ROM. Sirs, Inc. 1999.

Time Almanac:

Gorman, Christine. “Do Sunscreens Save Your Skin?” Time 24 May 1993: 69. Time Almanac. CD-ROM. Time, Inc. 1993.

Internet Resources

Online Databases

Include the following information as is available:

Last name, first name (if given)

Title of the article

Title of the database (underlined)

Date of the material (if given)

Electronic medium [Online]

Full address and search path followed

Name of the computer service or vender

Date of your access

“Chemical Elements: Periodic Law and Table: History of the Periodic Law.” Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1998. [Online]

Available: 180/ (29 Sep. 1998).

E-mail messages, Listserves, and Newslists

Include the following information when available:

Last name, first name

Subject line from the posting (in quotation marks)

Title of the complete work (underlined)

E-mail to recipient’s name

Date of the message

Address of listserve or newslist (omit address for e-mail)

Date of access (in parentheses)

Stevens, Cheryl W. “Goosebumps.” 9 Nov. 1995. [Online] LM_NET @ LISTSERVE.SYR.EDU (15 Nov. 1995).

“TEA Quits TENET Access.” Texas Telecommunications Journal. Vol. 2 No. 8. E-mail to Julie Walker. 1 Feb. 1997. [Online] (9 Feb. 1997).

Williams, Laura. “Chess Club meeting.” 1 Sep. 1998. E-mail to Maria Fernandez. (9 Sep. 1996).

World Wide Web (WWW), Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Gopher Sites

Include the following information when available:

Last name, first name

Title of work (in quotation marks)

Title of the complete work (underlined)

Date of document

Any publication information

Electronic medium [Online]

Full address and search path followed

Date of access (in parentheses)

“The Fascinating Story of the Piano.” National Piano Foundation. Piano Manufactures Association International, 1996. [Online] (31 Jan. 1997).

“The Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria.” From the original Greek translated for and edited by Bennet Woodcraft. [Online] (30 Jan. 1997).

(Note: The remaining examples in this document guide are reprinted with permission from Janice Walker, University of South Florida. Email:

Online Images, Sounds, and Video Clips

Description or title of image

Electronic medium [Online Image] [Online Sound] [Online Video Clip]


Date of document (if given)

Date of download (in parentheses)

White House. [Online Image] Available (7 Oct. 1998).

Carnegie Hall Tour [Online Sound] Available (7 Oct. 1998).

The Dolphin Institute. [Online Video Clip] Available (7 Oct. 1998).


Personal Interviews

Include the name of person interviewed, type of interview (personal, telephone), and the date.

Watkins, Linda. Telephone interview. 1 Dec. 1997.

Lectures, Speeches, or Addresses

Include the speaker’s name, title of presentation (in quotations) or description (speech, lecture, address), meeting and sponsoring organization (if known), location, date.

Jordan, Barbara. Address. School of Social Work, University of Texas. Austin. 2 Jul. 1993.

Musical Compositions

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony no. 8 in F, op. 93.

Religious Sources

Information on citing the Bible and other religious sources comes from the MLA Handbook and Mr. Eric Wirth, Modern Language Association of America, Headquarters, 10 Astor Place, New York, NY 10003, (212) 614-6311. The reference number preceding specific entries corresponds to the numbering used in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, fourth edition.

2.6.5: The convention of using underlining and quotation marks to indicate titles does not apply to the names of sacred writings (including all books and versions of the Bible).

These terms all appear without underlining or quotation marks:

Bible Gospels
King James Version Talmud
Old Testament Koran
Genesis Upanishads

Exact references to scriptural passages, whether used in the text, in parenthetical citations, or in notes, employ abbreviations for the names of most books of the Bible.

5.4.8: When included in parenthetical references, the titles of the books of the Bible…are often abbreviated (1 Chron. 21.8, Rev. 21.3…)

The most widely used and accepted abbreviations for such titles are listed in 6.7.1.

References to the Judeo-Christian scriptures are usually confined to the text or notes. Notes in parenthetical text references to the Bible…should include book (in Roman type and abbreviated), chapter, and verse — never a page number. A period is used between chapter and verse.

In a letter to the Thessalonians (1 Thess. 4.11), Paul urges the faithful…

The version of the Bible now most frequently referred to in scholarly work is the Revised Standard Version [RSV], but other versions are also used, and it is therefore essential to identify which is being cited or quoted:

2 Kings 11.8 RSV

1 Cor. 13.1-13 New English Bible

John 3.5-6 NEB

1 Cor. 13.8-13 King James Version

John 3.5-6 KJV

In text, references to whole books of the Bible and whole psalms are spelled out:

The opening chapters of Ephesians constitute Paul’s most compelling sermon on love.

Jeremiah, chapters 42-44, records the flight of the Jews to Egypt when Jerusalem fell in 586 BC.

To cite a reference in Works Cited, it should be cited similarly to other well-known works, such as the dictionary:

4.6.8: When citing familiar reference books, especially those that frequently appear in new editions, do not give full publication information. For such works, list only the edition (if stated) and the year of publication (if stated).

The Holy Bible. King James Version. Cleveland: World Publishing.

When a book does not indicate the publisher, the place, or the date of publication…, supply as much of the missing information as you can [from other places in the book], using brackets [ ] to show that it did not come from the source.

Preparing the Paper

Typing the Paper

Most papers will be prepared using a computer program or word processor. Some concession in style will simplify the actual typing (keyboarding) of the paper.

Double space

Set 1-inch margins on all sides

Set TAB for 5 spaces

Choose a standard, legible font and size (usually 12 pt.)

Abbreviations and contractions are not appropriate for formal research papers.

When typing BLOCK quotations, indent two times (10 spaces) on the left, but do not indent the right side of the quotation; no quotation marks are required, and a period is used before the parentheses, as shown below:

In the window of the store next door there are things like huge ostrich eggs, snakeskin, and skulls. I press my face up to the glass to look at a human skull, trying to imagine what my own skull looks like inside my head and what Angel Juan’s looks like and if our bones look the same. (Black 59)


Standard Fonts:



New Century Schoolbook

Standard Size: 12-point

Spacing: Double space entire paper

Special Notes:

  • NO cover sheet
  • No separate title page
  • No blank sheet as last page
  • No folder or plastic cover (unless required)
  • Usually a single staple in the upper left-hand corner is sufficient.
  • Regular tab indention to begin a paragraph is 1/2″.
  • Block quotations indent 1″ from left margin. Do not indent from right margin. All block quotations are double-spaced throughout.
  • Remember: no quotation marks around the block quotations. Cite the source after the final period.

1/2″ = 5 spaces (approximately)

1″ = 10 spaces (approximately)

American Psychological Association (APA) and Modern Language Association (MLA) Website Addresses

American Psychological Association (APA)

Modern Language Association (MLA)

Works Cited

Freshman English Committee, Dept. of English. Guide for Freshman Composition: English 1302 and 1304, 1994-95. Waco: Baylor University, 1994.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 4th ed. New York: MLA, 1995.

Hart, Diane. Westwood High School: Writing Documentation Guide. Rev. ed. Austin: Westwood High School, 1994.

Walker, Janice R. “MLA-Style Citations of Electronic Sources.” Vers. 1.1. Jan. 1995. [On line] (13 Apr. 1998).

< text-decoration: underline;”>Writing the Research Report. Austin: Holt, 1991.

This documentation guide was compiled by:

Patricia Conquest

Barbee Cox

Marilyn Eanes

Karen Hodges

Becky Holditch

Deborah Lightfoot

Katherine Minter

Kay Murphy

Margaret Oberender

Karen Saunders

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